Photobiomodulation Equipment and Training - THOR Photomedicine

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THOR Photobiomodulation Therapy for Wound Healing

How Does it Work?

So how does tissue regeneration via improved cellular function actually work? Let's take a look at some research from NASA scientist, Dr Harry Whelan...

Dr. Harry Whelan (NASA)
Dr. Harry Whelan

"Low-energy photon irradiation by light in the far-red to near-IR spectral range with low-energy lasers or LED arrays has been found to modulate various biological processes in cell culture and animal models. This phenomenon of photobiomodulation has been applied clinically in the treatment of soft tissue injuries and the acceleration of wound healing. The mechanism of photobiomodulation by red to near-IR light at the cellular level has been ascribed to the activation of mitochondrial respiratory chain components, resulting in initiation of a signaling cascade that promotes cellular proliferation and cytoprotection."

"A growing body of evidence suggests that cytochrome oxidase is a key photoacceptor of light in the far-red to near-IR spectral range."

"Cytochrome oxidase is an integral membrane protein that contains four redox active metal centers and has a strong absorbance in the far-red to near-IR spectral range detectable in vivo by near-IR spectroscopy."

"Moreover, 660-680 nm of irradiation has been shown to increase electron transfer in purified cytochrome oxidase, increase mitochondrial respiration and ATP synthesis in isolated mitochondria, and up-regulate cytochrome oxidase activity in cultured neuronal cells."

"LED photostimulation induces a cascade of signaling events initiated by the initial absorption of light by cytochrome oxidase. These signaling events may include the activation of immediate early genes, transcription factors, cytochrome oxidase subunit gene expression, and a host of other enzymes and pathways related to increased oxidative metabolism."

"In addition to increased oxidative metabolism, red to near-IR light stimulation of mitochondrial electron transfer is known to increase the generation of reactive oxygen species. These mitochondrially generated reactive oxygen species may function as signaling molecules to provide communication between mitochondria and the cytosol and nucleus."

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA. 2003 Mar 18;100(6):3439-44.
NASA photobiomodulation research with LED's published here

The original work in this area was started much earlier in Russia by the acknowledged world leader in photobiological mechanisum research, Tiina Karu

Tiina Karu
Tiina Karu
Professor, Head of Laboratory
of Laser Biology and
Medicine, Institute on Laser
and Informatic Technologies
of Russian Academic Science

"The photobiological action mechanism via activation of the respiratory chain is a universal mechanism. Primary photoacceptors are terminal oxidases. Primary reactions in or with a photoacceptor molecule lead to photobiological responses at the cellular level through cascades of biochemical homeostatic reactions. Crucial events of this type of cellmetabolism activation occur due to a shift of cellular redox potential in the direction of greater oxidation. Cell-metabolism activation via the respiratory chain occurs in all cells susceptible to light irradiation. Susceptibility to irradiation and capability for activation depend on the physiological status of irradiated cells; cells whose overall redox potential is shifted to a more reduced state (e.g., certain pathological conditions) are more sensitive to irradiation."

0-8493-1116-0/03/$0.00+$1.50 © 2003 by

Read the full article here

THOR Low Level Laser Therapy Course


Our customers include: Harvard Medical School, Massachusetts General Hospital, British Army, RAF, Royal Navy, Team GB, Manchester United, MIT, Harvard School of Public Health, Cedars Sinai, City of Hope, USUHS
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THOR Photomedicine Ltd is an ISO 13485:2016 certified medical device company.

The THOR LX2.3 Photobiomodulation system has a medical CE mark (EC certificate). It is indicated for oral mucositis, tendinopathies, joint pain, neck pain and back pain for marketing in the UK, EU and Australia.

The THOR LX2.3 Photobiomodulation system is also FDA Cleared for marketing in the United States for: Temporary increase in local blood circulation, temporary relief of minor muscle and joint aches, pains and stiffness and relaxation of muscles; for muscle spasms, and minor pain and stiffness associated with arthritis.

Excluding the THOR LED Helmet, THOR LX2 and NovoTHOR systems are manufactured under conditions fulfilling the quality system requirements of Annex II, excluding (4), of the directive 93/42/EEC as amended and satisfy the applicable international harmonised standards.

Positive systematic reviews published by:

The British Medical Journal (BMJ), The Lancet, the International Association for the Study of Pain (IASP), the World Health Organisation (WHO), the Multinational Association for Supportive Care in Cancer (MASCC), the European Society for Medical Oncology (ESMO)

Appropriate regulatory clearance or approvals include:

Quality certificates